Guia tecnica: Motores electricos y drivers. Fundamentos, tipos y aplicaciones (Ingles)

Solapas principales

1 ELECTRIC MOTORS 1 Introduction 1 Producing Rotation 2 Magnetic field and magnetic flux 3 Magnetic flux density 4 Force on a conductor 6 Magnetic Circuits 7 Magnetomotive force (MMF) 9 Electric circuit analogy 10 The air-gap 11 Reluctance and air-gap flux densities 12 Saturation 14 Magnetic circuits in motors 15 Torque Production 16 Magnitude of torque 18 The beauty of slotting 19 Specific Loadings and Specific Output 21 Specific loadings 21 Torque and motor volume 23 Specific output power - importance of speed 23 Energy Conversion - Motional EMF 25 Elementary motor - stationary conditions 26 Power relationships - conductor moving at constant speed 28Equivalent Circuit 30 Motoring condition 32 Behaviour with no mechanical load 32 Behaviour with a mechanical load 35 Relative magnitudes of V and E, and efficiency 37 Analysis of primitive motor - conclusions 38 General Properties of Electric Motors 39 Operating temperature and cooling 39 Torque per unit volume 40 Power per unit volume - importance of speed 41 Size effects - specific torque and efficiency 41 Efficiency and speed 41 Rated voltage 41 Short-term overload 42 Review Questions 42 2 POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS FOR MOTOR DRIVES 45 Introduction 45 General arrangement of drives 45 Voltage Control - D.C. Output from D.C. Supply 47 Switching control 48 Transistor chopper 49 Chopper with inductive load - overvoltage protection 52 Features of power electronic converters 54 D.C. from A.C. - Controlled Rectification 55 The thyristor 55 Single-pulse rectifier 56 Single-phase fully controlled converter - output voltage and control 57 3-phase fully controlled converter 62 Output voltage range 64 Firing circuits 64 A.C. from D.C. SP - SP Inversion 65 Single-phase inverter 65 Output voltage control 67 Sinusoidal PWM 68 3-phase inverter 69 vi ContentsForced and natural commutation - historical perspective 69 Matrix converters 70 Inverter Switching Devices 72 Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) 72 Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) 73 Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) 74 Gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) 74 Converter Waveforms and Acoustic Noise 75 Cooling of Power Switching Devices 75 Thermal resistance 75 Arrangement of heatsinks and forced air cooling 77 Cooling fans 78 Review Questions 79 3 CONVENTIONAL D.C. MOTORS 82 Introduction 82 Torque Production 84 Function of the commutator 86 Operation of the commutator - interpoles 88 Motional E.M.F. 90 Equivalent circuit 94 D.C. motor - Steady-State Characteristics 95 No-load speed 95 Performance calculation - example 96 Behaviour when loaded 98 Base speed and field weakening 103 Armature reaction 105 Maximum output power 106 Transient Behaviour - Current Surges 107 Dynamic behaviour and time-constants 108 Shunt, Series and Compound Motors 111 Shunt motor - steady-state operating characteristics 113 Series motor - steady-state operating characteristics 115 Contents viiUniversal motors 118 Compound motors 119 Four-Quadrant Operation and Regenerative Braking 119 Full speed regenerative reversal 122 Dynamic braking 124 Toy Motors 124 Review Questions 126 4 D.C. MOTOR DRIVES 133 Introduction 133 Thyristor D.C. Drives - General 134 Motor operation with converter supply 136 Motor current waveforms 136 Discontinuous current 139 Converter output impedance: overlap 141 Four-quadrant operation and inversion 143 Single-converter reversing drives 144 Double SP-converter reversing drives 146 Power factor and supply effects 146 Control Arrangements for D.C. Drives 148 Current control 150 Torque control 152 Speed control 152 Overall operating region 154 Armature voltage feedback and IR compensation 155 Drives without current control 155 Chopper-Fed D.C. Motor Drives 155 Performance of chopper-fed d.c. motor drives 156 Torque-speed characteristics and control arrangements 159 D.C. Servo Drives 159 Servo motors 160 Position control 162 Digitally Controlled Drives 163 Review Questions 164 viii Contents5 INDUCTION MOTORS - ROTATING FIELD, SLIP AND TORQUE 167 Introduction 167 Outline of approach 168 The Rotating Magnetic Field 170 Production of rotating magnetic field 172 Field produced by each phase winding 172 Resultant field 176 Direction of rotation 177 Main (air-gap) flux and leakage flux 177 Magnitude of rotating flux wave 179 Excitation power and VA 182 Summary 183 Torque Production 183 Rotor construction 183 Slip 185 Rotor induced e.m.f., current and torque 185 Rotor currents and torque - small slip 187 Rotor currents and torque - large slip 189 Influence of Rotor Current on Flux 191 Reduction of flux by rotor current 192 Stator Current-Speed Characteristics 193 Review Questions 196 6 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUCTION MOTORS 198 Methods of Starting Cage Motors 198 Direct Starting - Problems 198 Star/delta (wye/mesh) starter 202 Autotransformer starter 202 Resistance or reactance starter 203 Solid-state soft starting 204 Starting using a variable-frequency inverter 206 Run-up and Stable Operating Regions 206 Harmonic effects - skewing 208 High inertia loads - overheating 209 Steady-state rotor losses and efficiency 209 Contents ixSteady-state stability - pullout torque and stalling 210 Torque-Speed Curves - Influence of Rotor Parameters 211 Cage rotor 211 Double cage rotors 213 Deep bar rotors 214 Starting and run-up of slipring motors 215 Influence of Supply Voltage on Torque-Speed Curve 217 Generating and Braking 218 Generating region - overhauling loads 219 Plug reversal and plug braking 220 Injection braking 221 Speed Control 221 Pole-changing motors 222 Voltage control of high-resistance cage motors 223 Speed control of wound-rotor motors 224 Power Factor Control and Energy Optimisation 225 Voltage control 225 Slip energy recovery (wound rotor motors) 227 Single-Phase Induction Motors 227 Principle of operation 227 Capacitor-run motors 229 Split-phase motors 230 Shaded-pole motors 231 Size Range 232 Scaling down - the excitation problem 232 Review Questions 233 7 INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 236 Introduction 236 Outline of approach 237 Similarity Between Induction Motor and Transformer 238 The Ideal Transformer 240 Ideal transformer - no-load condition, flux and magnetising current 240 x ContentsIdeal transformer - no-load condition, voltage ratio 245 Ideal transformer on load 246 The Real Transformer 248 Real transformer - no-load condition, flux and magnetising current 248 Real transformer - leakage reactance 251 Real transformer on load - exact equivalent circuit 252 Real transformer - approximate equivalent circuit 254 Measurement of parameters 256 Significance of equivalent circuit parameters 257 Development of the Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit 258 Stationary conditions 258 Modelling the electromechanical energy conversion process 259 Properties of Induction Motors 261 Power balance 262 Torque 262 Performance Prediction - Example 263 Line current 264 Output power 264 Efficiency 265 Phasor diagram 266 Approximate Equivalent Circuits 267 Starting and full-load relationships 268 Dependence of pull out torque on motor parameters 269 Analysis 270 Graphical interpretation via phasor diagram 271 Measurement of Parameters 274 Equivalent Circuit Under Variable-Frequency Conditions 274 Review Questions 277 Contents xi8 INVERTER-FED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES 279 Introduction 279 Comparison with d.c. drive 280 Inverter waveforms 282 Steady-state operation - importance of achieving full flux 284 Torque-Speed Characteristics - Constant V/f Operation 286 Limitations imposed by the inverter - constant power and constant torque regions 288 Limitations imposed by motor 289 Control Arrangements for Inverter-Fed Drives 290 Open-loop speed control 291 Closed-loop speed control 293 Vector (Field-Oriented) Control 296 Transient torque control 297 Cycloconverter Drives 300 Review Questions 303 9 STEPPING MOTORS 305 Introduction 305 Open-loop position control 306 Generation of step pulses and motor response 307 High-speed running and ramping 308 Principle of Motor Operation 311 Variable reluctance motor 312 Hybrid motor 314 Summary 317 Motor Characteristics 318 Static torque-displacement curves 318 Single-stepping 319 Step position error and holding torque 320 Half stepping 321 Step division - mini-stepping 323 xii ContentsSteady-State Characteristics - Ideal (Constant-Current) Drive 324 Requirements of drive 324 Pull-out torque under constant-current conditions 326 Drive Circuits and Pull-Out Torque-Speed Curves 328 Constant-voltage drive 328 Current-forced drive 330 Chopper drive 331 Resonances and instability 333 Transient Performance 335 Step response 335 Starting from rest 336 Optimum acceleration and closed-loop control 337 Review Questions 338 10 SYNCHRONOUS, BRUSHLESS D.C. AND SWITCHED RELUCTANCE DRIVES 340 Introduction 340 Synchronous Motors 341 Excited-rotor motors 343 Equivalent circuit of excited-rotor synchronous motor 344 Phasor diagram and Power-factor control 347 Starting 349 Permanent magnet synchronous motors 350 Hysteresis motors 351 Reluctance motors 351 Controlled-Speed Synchronous Motor Drives 352 Open-loop inverter-fed synchronous motor drives 353 Self-synchronous (closed-loop) operation 354 Operating characteristics and control 355 Brushless D.C. Motors 357 Contents xiiiSwitched Reluctance Motor Drives 358 Principle of operation 359 Torque prediction and control 360 Power converter and overall drive characteristics 363 Review Questions 363 11 MOTOR/DRIVE SELECTION 366 Introduction 366 Power Range for Motors and Drives 366 Maximum speed and speed range 368 Load Requirements - Torque-Speed Characteristics 369 Constant-torque load 369 Inertia matching 374 Fan and pump loads 374 General Application Considerations 375 Regenerative operation and braking 375 Duty cycle and rating 376 Enclosures and cooling 377 Dimensional standards 378 Supply interaction and harmonics 378 Review Questions 379 APPENDIX - INTRODUCTION TO CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL 381 Reasons for Adopting a Simplified Approach 381 Closed-Loop (Feedback) Systems 382 Error-activated feedback systems 383 Closed-loop systems 384 Steady-State Analysis of Closed-Loop Systems 386 Importance of Loop Gain - Example 390 Steady-State Error - Integral Control 392 PID Controller 394 xiv ContentsStability 396 Disturbance Rejection - Example Using D.C. Machine 397 Further Reading 400 Answers to Numerical Review Questions 401 Index 404

 

 

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